People with pre-diabetes often have no signs or symptoms, or don't recognize them because they develop slowly, over a period of time.
Risk FactorsIf you are overweight and age 45 or older - You should be checked for pre-diabetes during your next routine medical office visit.
If your weight is normal and you are over age 45 - You should ask your doctor during a routine office visit if testing is appropriate.
If you are under age 45 and overweight - Your doctor should recommend testing if you have any other risk factors for diabetes, including:
- High blood pressure
- Low HDL cholesterol and high triglycerides
- Family history of diabetes
- History of gestational diabetes or delivering a baby weighing 9 pounds or more
- You belong to an ethnic or minority group at high risk for diabetes, including: African-Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, or Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders.
Screening and Diagnosis
Doctors often refer to pre-diabetes as Impaired Glucose Tolerance or Impaired Fasting Glucose (IGT/IFG). Screening guidelines for pre- and type 2 diabetes are as follows:
- Fasting blood glucose of 100 mg/dl or lower is considered normal.
- Fasting blood glucose elevated to 100 - 125 mg/dl indicates pre-diabetes.
- Fasting blood glucose elevated to 126 mg/dl or higher indicates diabetes.
Prevention and TreatmentIf diagnosed with pre-diabetes, you can and should do something about it. Studies show that people with this condition can prevent or delay the development of type 2 diabetes through lifestyle changes, including:
- Moderate weight loss (reducing total body weight by 5 to 10%)
- Regular exercise (30 minutes a day, 5 days a week)